词语大全 > 省略句

省略句

文言文中,普遍存在着省略成分的情况,对省略成分的把握,有助于完整理解句子的意思。

省略句也是英语的一种习惯用法。按照语法的分析,句子应该具备的成分,有时出于修辞上的需要,在句中并不出现,这种句子叫做省略句(elliptical sentences)这种语法现象称为“省略”(ellipsis or leaving words out)。其特点是:虽然省去句子语法构造所需要的组成部分,但仍能表达其完整的意义。省略形式多样,从单词、短语到分句,都可以省略,而且各有一定的衔接关系,不容臆断。

省略是为了避免重复、突出新信息 并使上下文紧密连接的一种语法修辞手段。省略在英语语言中,尤其在对话中,是一种十分普遍的现象。省略句是英语的一种习惯用法。

1. 省略句的定义

省略是为了避免重复、突出新信息并使上下文紧密连接的一种语法 修辞手段。省略在语言中,尤其在对话中,是一种十分普遍的现象。

2.小品词的省略

( 1 )省略介词

I ' ve studied English (for) five years. 我已学五年英语了。

( 2 )省略连词that

I believe (that) you will succeed . 我相信你们会成功的。

It ' s a pity (that) he ' s leaving. 他要走,真遗憾。

I ' m sure (that) she will help you. 我肯定她会帮你的。

注:在宾语从句中,当有两个及以上并列从句时,第一个that可省,以后的均不可省。

( 3 )省略关系代词

I ' ll give you all (that) I have. 我要把我所有的一切都给你。

3.句子成分的省略

( 1 )省略主语

Beg your pardon. (我)请你原谅。( Beg 前省略了主语 I )

Take care! 保重!( Take 前省略了主语 you )

Looks as if it will rain. 看起来象要下雨。( Looks 前省略了主语 it )

( 2 )省略谓语

Who next? 该谁了?( Who 后面省略了谓语 comes )

The river was deep and the ice thin. ( ice 后面省略了 was )

We ' ll do the best we can. 我们将尽力而为。( can 后面省略了动词do )

( 3 )省略表语

Are you ready? Yes, I am. 你准备好了吗? 我准备好了。( am 后面省略了 ready )

He was a lover of sports as he had been in his youth. 他还是象年轻时那样,是一位运动爱好者。( had been 后面省略了 a lover of sports )

( 4 )省略宾语

Let ' s do the dishes. I ' ll wash and you ' ll dry. 让我们洗碗吧,我来洗,你来揩干。( wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语 dishes )

( 5 )省略定语

He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 那钱他花了部分,其余的他都存了起来。( the rest 后面省略了定语 of the money )

( 6 )省略状语

He was not hurt. Strange! 他没有受伤,真奇怪!( Strange 前面省略了状语 how )

1. 省略句可同时省掉句子几个成份

What exciting news! (= What exciting news it is!) 多么令人激动的消息啊!

Pity he ' s failed. (= It is a pity that he ' s failed.) 很遗憾,他失败了。

I like him more than her. (= I like him more than I like her.) 我喜欢他更甚于喜欢她。

2. 英语中有一些固定的省略结构:

a) 在以 if, when, though, as if (好像)等连词引导的从句中,如从句中的主要动词是 be ,常将主语和动词 be 省略。

If necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要,我们就往家里打电报。

Whenever possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就来帮助我。

While cycling, don ' t forget the traffic lights. 骑车时,不要忘记看红绿灯。

b) 由固定词组引导的疑问句

What about having a game of chess? 下盘棋怎么样?

How come they left you alone here? 他们怎么会把你一人留在这里呢?

What if it ' s raining? 如果天下雨怎么办?

Why not try again? 为什么不再试试呢?

c) 在口语中,为了避免重复,不定式可以省去和句子前部重复的动词原形而只留下不定式符号 to 。

He may leave if he wishes to. 他可以走,如果他愿意的话。

Don ' t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。

3. 被省略的部分一般可以在句子中补上,但有时省略结构已经定型,如果把省略部分补上,反而不合乎习惯。

He is taller than I am. 他比我高。( am 之后省略 tall ,补上不合习惯)

No parking. 禁止停车。(告示用语 = No parking is allowed here. )

有一些习惯表达很难补上所省略的部分:

Not at all. 不用谢。

No matter. 不要紧。

Thanks. 谢谢。

概念:为了避免重复,常常省略句子中的一个或几个成分,这样的句子叫省略句。

1. 简单句中的省略:

(1)Looks like rain.

(2)Hope to hear from you soon.

(3)Sounds like a good idea.

(4)Beg your pardon.

(5)Feeling better today ?

(6)This way, please.

(7)What does he want to eat ?

Some rice and vegetables.

(8)Anything I can do for you ?

(9)Sorry to hear that.

(10)Doesn’t matter.

(11)Terrible weather!

(12)Pity you couldn’t come.

2. 并列句中的省略:

在并列句中,相同的成分如主语,谓语,宾语等都可以省略:

(1)They learn French and we English.

(2)My father planned and built all these houses.

(3)John won the first race and Jimmy the second.

(4)Coral is not a plant buta variety of animal life. [1]

I. 改写句子 使用省略手段避免下面各句重复与冗赘 :

1. Someone has used my mobile phone, but I don ' t know who has used it.

2. John worked hard but his brother did not work hard.

3. I have lazy students and hardworking students in my class.

4. --- Has he ever been abroad?

--- No, he has never been abroad.

5. If it is necessary, we will finish it ahead of time.

6. You must not be late and you must not be absent.

7. Give me your name and address, please.

8. It is well done.

9. Mother can take a rest, Mother should take a rest but Mother won ' t take a rest after long hours of work.

10.He could answer the questions very well if he would answer the questions but he didn ' t answer the questions.

II. 单项选择 从 A 、 B 、 C 、 D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案:

1. --- I won ' t do it any more. --- ________?

A. Why don ' t B. Why don ' t do it any more

C. Why not D. Why not to

2. Although ________ to stop, he kept on working.

A. tell B. telling C. having told D. told

3. --- Will you waste your time and money on that? --- Certainly ________.

A. I not B. don ' t C. not D. no

4. --- Mary didn ' t attend the lecture, did she? --- Yes, she ________.

A. attended B. didn ' t attend C. didn ' t D. did

5. --- What ' s Joan doing?

--- _________ newspapers in the room.

A. She reading B. She reads

C. To read D. Reading

6. _________ always succeed.

A. Honest and clever students B. Students who honest and clever

C. Honest students and clever D. Students are honest and clever

7. --- Can you climb that tree, my boy? --- __________ ?

A. I B. Myself C. Mine D. Me

8. Some people are against the plan but _______ support it.

A. any more B. many more C. much more D. no more

9. --- I ' ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?

--- Not at all. _________.

A. I ' ve no time B. I ' d rather not C. I ' d like to D. I ' d be happy to

10. --- Why not go and have dinner in a restaurant?

--- _________. It ' s too expensive.

A. Why not B. I agree C. I'm afraid not D. I'm sure

答案: CDCDD ADBDC

1、省略介词

He spent four hours (in) going over his lessons. 他花了四个小时复习功课。

I ' ve studied English (for) five years. 我已学五年英语了。

2、省略连词that

I believe (that) you will succeed . 我相信你们会成功的。

It ' s a pity (that) he ' s leaving. 他要走,真遗憾。

I ' m sure (that) she will help you. 我肯定她会帮你的。

3、省略关系代词

He read the book (which) I got yesterday. 他看过我昨天买的书。

1、省略主语

Beg your pardon. (我)请你原谅。( Beg 前省略了主语 I )

Take care! 当心!( Take 前省略了主语 you )

Looks as if it will rain. 看起来象要下雨。( Looks 前省略了主语 it )

2、省略谓语

Who next? 该谁了?( Who 后面省略了谓语 comes )

The river was deep and the ice thin. ( ice 后面省略了 was )

We ' ll do the best we can. 我们将尽力而为。( can 后面省略了动词 do )

3、省略表语

Are you ready? Yes, I am. 你准备好了吗? 我准备好了。( am 后面省略了 ready )

He was a lover of sports as he had been in his youth. 他还是象年轻时那样,是一位运动爱好者。( had been 后面省略了 a lover of sports )

4、省略宾语

Let ' s do the dishes. I ' ll wash and you ' ll dry. 让我们洗碗吧,我来洗,你来揩干。( wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语 dishes )

5、省略定语

He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 那钱他花了部分,其余的他都存了起来。( the rest 后面省略了定语 of the money )

6、省略状语

He was not hurt. Strange! 他没有受伤,真奇怪!( Strange 前面省略了状语 how )

1.简单句中的省略:

在对话中,交谈双方都知道谈论的对象,则可以省略句子的主语,省略主语和谓语的现象在交际用语中出现的很多。

(1)Looks like rain.

(2)Hope to hear from you soon.

(3)Sounds like a good idea.

2.并列句中的省略:

在并列句中,相同的成分如主语,谓语,宾语等都可以省略:

(1)They learn French and we English.

(2)My father planned and built all these houses.

(3)John won the first race and Jimmy the second.

3.复合句中的省略:

定语从句:(1)That’s the reason he is late for the conference.

状语从句:(1)If heated, water will boil.

(2)Tom was attacked by cramp while swimming across the river.

宾语从句:如果宾语从句中的谓语部分与主句的谓语部分或上文的谓语部分相同,可将从句部分的谓语省略。

(1)We will do what we can(do)to help you.

(2)Is Mr. King in his office?

Sorry, I don’t know(whether he is in his office or not).

4.动词不定式的省略:在动词不定式结构中,为了避免重复,常常省略不定式结构中的动词原形,只保留to。

(1)Would you like to go with us ?

I’m glad to, but I have to finish my homework.

在used to, ought to, have to, would like/love to, wish to, be going to等结构中,常常省略to后面的动词原形

(1)They do not visit their parents as much as they ought to.

(2)He doesn’t get up early as he used to.

(3)I’ll hand it in if I have to.

(4)Would you like to come tonight ?

I’d love to.

Tell , warn , order , advise , ask等动词的宾语后面接动词不定式做宾语补足语时,可以省略to后面的动词原形。

(1)He wanted to swim across the river but I warned him not to.

(2)The boy wanted to play football in the street, but his mother told him not to.

5.虚拟条件句中的省略:

在虚拟条件句中,如含有had,were,should等时,if可省略,句子倒装

如: Should it rain tomorrow,you would have to put off your tour.

两个主语不同的句子,谓语有相同部分,也有不同部分,如果用连词连接起来进行对比,则其相同部分在后面分句中可以省略,这样,后面分句中就出现“空缺”现象。“空缺”处通常被省略的是动词,或动词及其宾语、补足语等。汉译时不妨采用“补齐”的方法。例如:

A sound must be heard,a colour seen,a flavour tasted,an odour inhaled.,颜色必须目视,滋味必须口尝,气味必须鼻吸。(后三句省略 must be) Histories make men wise;mathematic logic and rhetoric able to contend.;数学使人精细;逻辑和修辞使人善辩。(原文后两句省略make men)

than引出的比较从句中,套有when引导的时间从句或if引导的条件从句,而且该比较从句中的省略部分与整个句子的主要结构一致时则比较从句的省略部分可省略不译。例如:

My uncle is better than when I wrote to我伯父的身体比我上次给你去信时好些了(...than后面省略了he was)

对英语中一些特殊省略结构译法需灵活,指的是按正常语法规则分析,有的无法增补,有的要用不同的方式来增补,使之成为完全句。因此,汉译英时,视上下文加以灵活处理。

1.“宾语+主语+谓语……and +谓语”结构

其中and连接的,是用作不同成分的同一个词,这个词既是第一分句的宾语,又是第二分句的主语。此结构的特点是,把宾语提到句首,使之兼任后一分句的主语,达到简化句子结构的目的。汉译时,可仍先译宾语,不必改变原文的语序。例如:

This substance we call water,and come next only to oxygen.这种物质称为水,其重要性仅次于氧。(=We call this substance water,and this substance comes next only to oxygen.)

2.以“Hence +名词”开头的结构

hence是表示结果意义的连接副词,hence前面的句子表示原因,hence后面则省略了类似 come的动词。它是倒装句。例如:

Hence(comes)this instruction of the experiment因此,有这本实验说明书。

3.某些常用词组引导的省略疑问句,通常不需要写出其省略部分。例如:

How(is it)about the result?结果怎么样呢?

4.由习语组成的省略结构 So much is for the foundry processes.工艺过程的内容就是这些。(=Enough has been said or done about...;That is all we'll say about...)

Now for the sound-wave method.现 在谈谈风波方法。(=And we will now talk about...)

The grinding machine you operate must be oiled,and that at once.油,而且要马上上油。(and that是个加强语气的省略结构。that是指示代词,代替上文的全部,与and连用表示强调,后接状语。=andmustbeoiledat可译为“而且”。)

英语介词(短语)应用之频繁,简直到了“不可稍离”的地步。它是功能词中最积极、最活跃之一。但有时,为了用词简洁精练,在上下文意境清楚的前提下,介词常常省略。译文中也要采取相应的简洁表达手法。

1.动名词-ing前,有时省略介词。

Most people just ruin scissors (by)trying to sharpen them.大多数人想把剪刀磨快,结果却磨坏了。

2.在含有way,height,length,size,shape, ckness等惯用语前,有时省略介词。

Try to keep your letters (on)this side of 500 words.写信请勿超过五百字。

3.在以next,this,one,every,each,some,等开头的时间状语前,有时省略介词。

Nine days(from)now will be May Day.起再过九天,便是五一节。

4.在“noun +participle”,“noun +and all”结构中,有时省略介词“with”。

He jumped into the water, (with his)clothes and all.他和着衣服跳进水里。

5.某些动词、名词、形容词习惯搭配中的介词(短语),在以what,when,how,whether,that出的从句不定式短语之前,有时被省略。例如:

I am not informed(as to)whether he went,why from.我没听说他是否去了,为什么去,什么时候去,来自何地方。(省略与informed搭配的介词as to。)

They are tempered to be careless (of)how they spend their time,because they imagine they have so much of it.对于如何支配时间,他们总是漫不经心,因为他们认为时间多的是。(省略与形容词careless搭配的介词of。

古汉语省略句的省略方式和现代汉语相同,都是承前省蒙后省、对话省,但省略的成分却要广得多,如主语省略、谓语省略、宾语省略、兼语省略、介词省略、分句省略等等。

古汉语第三人称代词“之”不能作主语,当需要第三人称作主语时,或重复前句名词,或干脆省略,所以古汉语中主语省略就比较多。

1、承前省:上文已经出现,或者前面有所交代,下文即可将有关词语省去,这叫承前省。

如: 疾在腠里,汤熨之所及也;(疾)在肌肤,针石之所及也;(疾)在肠胃,火齐之所及也。(《扁鹊见蔡桓公》)是承前主省主。译为:病发生在皮肤,是汤熨所能治好的;(病)发生在肌肉;用针砭就能治好;(病)发生在肠胃,可以用火剂汤药来治疗。

永州之野产异蛇,(蛇)黑质而白章。(《捕蛇者说》)是承前宾省主。译为:永州的野外出产怪蛇,(蛇)身黑色的底子上有着白色的花纹。

2、蒙后省:后文已经出现,前面就不再写出,叫蒙后省,也作承后省。

如:( 公)度我至军中,公乃入。(《鸿门宴》)蒙后主省主。译为:(您)估计我到了咱们军营中,您再进去。

3、对话省。如:

蔺相如固止之,(蔺相如):“公之视廉将军孰与秦王?”(舍人们)曰:“(廉将军)不若也。”(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)由于是对话环境,对话的主语都省略了,甚至连对话内容里的主语也省略了。译为:蔺相如坚决制止住他们,(蔺相如)说:“你们比一下廉将军和秦王,谁厉害?”(舍人们)说:“(廉将军)不如秦王。”

一般情况下,谓语省略较少,但古汉语时有所见。译时一般要补出。

1、承前省。如:

陈胜自立为将军,(封)吴广为都尉。(《陈涉世家》)承前谓省谓。译为:陈胜封自己为将军(封)吴广为都尉。

2、蒙后省。如:

杀人如(恐)不能举,刑人如恐不胜。(《鸿门宴》)蒙后谓省谓。译为:杀人(唯恐)不能杀尽,处罚人唯恐不能用尽酷刑。

3、对话省。如:

齐威王欲将孙膑,孙膑谢曰:“刑余之人不可(将)。”(《孙膑》)对话环境中省略谓语“将”。译为:齐威王想拜孙膑为主将,孙膑推辞说:“我是受过膑刑的人,不能(担任主将)。”

1、动词的宾语的省略

动词宾语的省略,一般都是承前省,省略的往往都是多次“之”。如:

叶公见之,弃(之)而还走。(《叶公好龙》)承前宾省宾。译为:叶公看见它,连忙躲开(它)逃走。

如果动词后已有介宾短语补语,它的宾语(代词)也往往省略。如:

权起更衣,肃追(之)于宇下。(《赤壁之战》)译为:孙权起身上厕所,鲁肃追(他)到檐下。

否定句中,代词作的宾语也常省略。

如:扬州城下,进退不由()。(《〈指南录〉后序》)译为:在扬州城下,进退不由(自己)。

2、介词的宾语的省略

介词“以”“与”“为”等之后的代词宾语常常被省略。(“于”后的不省。)如:

齐使以()为奇,窃载与()之齐。(《孙膑》)译为:齐国的使者把(他)当作奇才,秘密的用车子载着,同(他)一起到齐国。

于是秦王不怿,为()一击缶。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)译为:在这种情况下,秦王很不高兴,给(赵王)敲了一下缶。

兼语句中,使令动词“使”“令”等后的代词兼语常常省略。如:

扶苏以数谏故,上使()外将兵。(《陈涉世家》)译为:扶苏因为多次劝谏的缘故,皇上就派(他)到边境去带兵打仗。

便要()还家,设酒杀鸡作食。(《桃花源记》)译为:就邀请(渔人)到家里,摆酒杀鸡做饭来招待他。

现代汉语的介词一般不省略,但古汉语的“以”“于”在构成介宾短语补语时,常被省略,如果同时有宾语,更易于被省略。

1、介词“于”的省略。如:

收天下之兵,聚之()咸阳。(《过秦论》)“于咸阳”作“聚”的补语,同时有宾语“之”,因此,介词“于”省略。译为:收没天下的武器,把这些武器集中(到)咸阳。

今臣至,大王见臣()列观。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)译为:现 在我到了,大王(在)偏殿接见我。

屈原至于江滨,被发行吟()泽畔。(《屈原列传》)译为:屈原来到江滨,披散着头发(在)湖边,一边走着一边吟诗。

2、介词“以”的省略。如:

死马且买之()五百金,况生马乎?(《战国策燕策》)译为:死马尚且(用)五百金买它,何况是活马呢?

又试之()鸡,果如成言。(《促织》)译为:又(用)鸡试验斗蟋蟀,果真像成名说的。

古汉语中,有时也出现分句省略的情况,要通过上下文来分辨,翻译时要补出来。如:

哗然而骇者,( ),虽鸡狗不得宁焉。(《捕蛇者说》)译为:吓得乱叫乱嚷的,(不仅是人),即使是猪狗也不得安宁呀。

项伯杀人,( ),臣活之。(《鸿门宴》)译为:项伯杀了一个人,(按律当斩),我救活了他。

在现代汉语里

在一定的语境里,为了语言的经济原则,说话时往往会省去句中某个句法成分,即省去已知信息的成分。如果离开了这样的语境,意思就不清楚,必须填补一定的词语才行,这就是省略。 [1] 省略句在现代汉语中分为两类:1,对话省如:小刚吃过早饭了吗?----------_吃过了_(省略已知信息的主语宾语)2,因上下文而省有的成分,上下文已经有了,或者下文马上就要出现,也往往省略不说。复句里的分句往往会承前或蒙后省去某些成分,在复句中会提到。注意:非主谓句并非省略句 [1]

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