词语大全 > 被动语态

被动语态

被动语态(passive voice)是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语谓语动词之间的关系。英语的语态共有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。汉语往往用"被"、"受"、"给"等被动词来表示被动意义 。被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。被动语态的时态变化只改变be的形式,过去分词部分不变。疑问式和否定式的变化也如此。

在英语中,被动语态使用得比汉语要多,要普遍,但大多数句子都使用主动语态。被动语态在英语中极为重要。许多课本及考试乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时,多用被动语态。需要注意的是,许多地方与汉语不同。注意:那些汉语中有“被……”的短语往往又不是被动语态,而是主系表结构。还有些特殊现象,如:“known to me的意思,英语却应该用被动态。还要注意,英语的被动语态往往由“by”引出,而有用介词“by on foot”步行(美国人有时用“by foot”),“in carriage”(乘四轮马车)等等。还有假主动,真被动的十几个常用词的用法,以及“so heavy to carry”而不用“so heavy to be carried”等习惯用法。有关这类情况,做到心中有数对全面掌握被动语态,准确无误地解答习题非常关键,被动态必须涉及的是动词的各种时态变化的问题。英语的时态本来很复杂,怎样记住各自的被动形式呢?首先要明确“将来进行无被动,现在完成时进行同”。这两种时态无被动形式。

另外,不及物动词带有同原宾语的动词,反身代词的动词和系动词都无被动形式。即便如此,还有不定式动名词分词,以及它们的复合结构的被动态,再加上情态动词助动词以及它们的疑问式和否定式从中掺杂。下面口诀就以动词“do”为例,即“do、did”过去式“done”过去分词,以口诀形式总结各种时态的被动态。一定对你有所启示。 当然了,被动语态也可以概括为“be done”。也就是“be+过去分词”。 [1]

一般现在时

①am\is\are②do/does(V.\V.s)

am\is\are+done(V. p.p)

一般将来时

will\be going to\be (about)to+do(V.)

will+be+done(V. p.p)

一般过去时

①was\were②did(V.-ed)

was\were+done(V. p.p)

现在进行时

am\is\are+doing(V.-ing)

am\is\are+being+done(V. p.p)

过去进行时

was\were+doing(V.-ing)

was\were+being+done(V.p.p)

现在完成时

have\has+done(V. p.p.)

have\has+been+done(V. p.p)

过去完成时

had+done(V. p.p.)

had+been+done(V. p.p.)

情态动词

情态动词+V.

情态动词+be+done(V. p.p.)

主动语态变被动语态时,主动语态句中的宾语变成被动语态句中的主语,主动语态句中的主语成为被动语态句中的动作的执行者。

(1)助动词be+及物动词的过去分词、

(2)情态动词+be+及物动词的过去分词

现以动词ask为例,将一般现在时和一般过去时的被动语态列表如下

一般现在时

I am asked..

He/she is asked...

We/you/they are asked...

I am not asked...

He/She is not asked...

We/you/they are not asked...

Am I asked...?

Is he/she asked...?

Are we/you/they asked...?

一般过去时

I was asked...

He/She was asked ...

We/you/they were asked...

I was not asked...

He/Shewas not asked...

We/you/they were not asked

Was I asked...?

Was he/she asked...?

Were we/you/they asked...?

被动语态常用于陈述事实,一般用在科技文章或新闻报道中。

口诀

一般现在时、一般过去时用be +及物动词的.过去分词,be有人称、时、数变。

完成时态have(has)done,被动将been加中间。

一般将来shall(will)do,被动变do为be done。

将来进行无被动,shall(will)be doing。

现在完成时,被动 have(has)been done。

现、过进行be doing,被动be加being done。

情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变。

否定助后加not,疑问一助置主前。

主语恰是疑问词直陈语序主在前。

一般情助加be done,双宾多将间宾变。

复合宾语宾变主,宾补、主补相应变。

第二句“be有人称、时、数变”即be有人称、时态和单、复数的变化。“情助”是指情态动词和助动词“must,may,can,shall,will”等一律随新主语(多是主动句中的宾语)来变化。“疑问一助置主前”是说有两个助动词的话,应把主语放在第一助动词之后或把第一助动词置于主语之前。下面详细举例说明之:

主动语态变为被动语态例句:

一般现在时:

主:We believe him.

被:He is believed by us.

一般过去时:

主:He bought his children some pens.

被:Some pens were bought for his children by him.

一般将来时:

主:Everyone will know the truth soon .

被:The truth will be known by everyone.

现在进行时:

主:Mary is making a doll.

被:A doll is being made by Mary.

过去进行时:

主:They were carrying the hurt player.

被:The hurt player was being carried by them .

现在完成时:

主:He has received the letter.

被:The letter has been received by him.

过去完成时:

主:They had built ten bridges.

被:Ten bridges had been built by them

一般现在时/过去时

例:

1、主动:The children gave the foreign guests a warm welcome.

被动:The foreign guests were given a warm welcome by the children.

孩子们热烈地欢迎外宾。

2、

主动:People regard him as brilliant.

被动:He is regarded as brilliant by people.

人们认为他很有才华。

以上两例都是一般时态用“be done”的事例,be有人称、时、数变,第三人称“foreign friends”是复数,时态一般过去时,所以“be done”就是“were given”,而“People regard him as brilliant”一句,被动后的“be done”就变成单数第三人称“is regarded”的形式了。

被动:

This speech was delivered by comrade Wang. (“was delivered”即为一般过去时的被动态)

这是王同志的讲演。

There was a serious train accident near the border. Two people were killed and twelve were injured.

边境发生非常严重列车事故,两人死亡,十二人受伤。

A person who is truly honest is called a straight arrow.

直言不讳的人才是真正诚实的人。

A note was passed up to the speaker.

有人给讲演者递上来一张纸条。

John was elected president of the class instead of Harry.

乔治被选为班长来代替亨利。

Volcanoes are described as active, dormant or extinct.

火山被叫做活火山,休眠火山,或者死火山。

The soldier was killed, but the train was saved.

这位战士牺牲了,然而列车得救了。

He was thought to be clever but dishonest.

他被认为很聪明但不诚实。

The first zoological garden in the United States was established in 1874.

美国的第一个动物园是1874年建立的。

Families were often broken up; wives were taken away from their husbands and children from their parents.

家庭总是被拆散,丈夫失去妻子,父母失去孩子。

The information is urgently needed.

急需这个资料。

Most environmental problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them were not taken in the past.

多数环境污染问题的存在是因为过去没有采取适当的保护措施。

完成时态

“havedone”,被动将“been”加中间。

过去完成时“had done”也包括在内)。

例:

1、主动:We have studied English for 3 years at the spare-time school.

被动:English has been studied by us for 3 years at the spare-time school.(“have”随新主语变为“has”)

我们已经在学校里学了三年英语了。

2、主动:They had produced 100 tractors by the end of last year.

被动:100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.

到去年年底他们已生产出一百台拖拉机。

3、主动:They have set up a power station in their home town.

被动:A power station has been set up in their home town.

他们的家乡建立了一座发电站。

4、主动:They have warned us to be careful of rats.

被动:We have been warned to be careful of rats by them.

他们已提醒我们要注意老鼠。

5、主动:People have piled plastic bags full of rubbish in streets.

被动: Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in streets.

人们把装满垃圾的塑料袋子堆放在街上。

6、主动:We have used nuclear energy to produce electricity.

被动:Nuclear energy has been used to produce electricity by us.

核能被我们用来发电。

7、主动:No one has ever beaten him at tennis.

被动:He has never been beaten at tennis.

就网球来说还没有人是他的对手。

(“No one”涉及到全否定和部分否定问题,见否定一讲)

The person who owns the gun may try to deny that he has used it. But anyone seeing the smoke knows the gun has just been fired.

有枪的人可能会试图否认他开了枪。但是任何看到枪冒的烟的人都会知道他刚才开了枪。

Today is Cilia's wedding day, she has just been married to Bob.

今天是西丽亚的新婚日,她刚刚和鲍勃结婚。

The subjects of these lectures have been announced by the lecture committee.

演讲委员会已宣布了这些讲演的题目。

过去完成时也是一样:

主动:Somebody had cleaned my shoes.

被动:My shoes had been cleaned by somebody.

有人已把我的鞋子擦了。

主动:When I returned I found that they had towed (tow) my car away, I asked why they had done this and they told me that it was because I had parked it under a "No Parking Sign".

被动:My car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and told that...it had been parked under a "No Parking Sign".

当我回来时,发现我的车被拖走了。我问他们为什么这么干。他们告诉我说因为我把车停在“禁止停车”的区域。

主动:They had build three ships by last December.

被动:By last December three ships had been built by them.

到去年年底他们已建造了三艘船。

Research had been centred on the improvement of natural building materials before synthetics were created.

合成材料造出之前,研究工作集中在改进天然建筑材料上。

He did not say if all those steel pipes had been examined.

他并没有说那些钢管是否都检验过。

After plastic had been created, engineers were given a much wide choice of materials.

塑料发明之后,工程师们在材料选择上有了更广阔的途径。

一般将来时

shall(will) do”,被动变“do”为“be done”

即由“shall do”或“will do”变为“shall done”或“will be done”。

例:主动:We shall build several big modern power plants in our city.

被动:Several big modern power plants will be built in our city.

我市将建立几座大型现代化的发电厂。

(“shall do”中的“shall”要随新主语变为“will”,“do”要变为“be done”。)

主动:I shall send my second boy to school next September.

被动:My second boy will be sent to school next September.

过年九月我将送我次子去读书。

主动:In order to fool people cheaps and swindlers will make such bricks out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold.

被动:Such bricks will be made out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold by swindlers.

砖块外面会被骗子们镀上一层金来做这样的“金砖”。

主动:They will ask you a lot of strange questions.

被动:You will be asked a lot of strange questions by them.

他们将问你许多怪题。

被动句中的“by”引出的宾语,一般说来,如果是人称代词你、我、他等,均可省略,“someone no one”不由“by”来引出。如果是名词不能省略,但当今英语也都可省略了。

主动:The Chinese people will make more space explorations in the future.

被动:More space explorations will be made in the future by the Chinese people.

中国人民在未来将进行更多的太空探索。

同样:

After a period of use, the batteries should be changed. 电池使用一段时间后,应该更换。

Usually, the electricity is on for 24 hours. But tomorrow it will be cut off in the day time. 通常是整天供电的,但是明天早晨将会停电。

More peaceful uses will be found for nuclear explosives in the future. 在将来会发现更多的和平利用核爆炸的途径。

More hard work will be needed to make this wonder come true in a short time from now. 为了在短时间内实现这个奇迹,从现在开始需要做更多工作。

The machine will not be used again. 这机器不能再用了。

Will more gas be needed? 需要更多的煤气吗?

但如果是一般过去将来时如何处理呢?请记下面口诀:

一般过去将来时,过去某时将发生。

主动“should(would)”“do”,被动“be done”代原形。

将来进行无被动,现在完成时同。

主动:A few days ago we were still not quite sure whether we should carry out the new plan ahead of time.

被动:whether the new plan would be carried out ahead of time.

几天前,我们还不能肯定能否应该提前执行新的计划。

主动:I did not say that we would change the equipment.

被动:I did not say that the equipment would be changed.

我并没说过我们将换掉那台设备。

主动:My supervisor told me that he would give me a special tutorial a few days ago.

被动:My supervisor told me that a special tutorial would be given to me a few days ago.

几天前,我的导师说他将对我进行个别辅导。

主动:I never thought that he would bring me the information so early.

被动:I never thought that the information would be brought to me by him so early.

我没想到他那么早就会把资料带给我。

将来进行时 现在完成时

将来进行时无被动,shall(will)be doing,

现在完成时同。have(has)been doing,

即将来进行时表示动作在将来某一时刻或某个阶段正在进行,现在完成时表示某一行为发生在过去。

例;We hope your company will soon be sending an engineer over to check this equipment. (将来进行时)我们希望贵公司早些派一名工程师来检查这台设备。

In a few minutes our passenger plane will be flying in the stratosphere.(将来进行时)几分钟后我们的客机将在同温层中飞行。

We hope scientists will be tapping new energy sources to meet the need for power. 我们希望科学家们将发掘新的能源来满足能量的需要。(将来进行时)

What will you be doing this evening? 今晚你将做什么?(将来进行时)

I have been living in Anshan Since 1980.(现在完成时)1980年以来,我一直住在鞍山。

How long have you been studying English? 你学英语多久了?(现在完成时)

We have been waiting at the airport for the because of the thick fog. 由于大雾,我们已经在机场等了一整天了。(现在完成时)

Since then, applied mathematicians have been coping successfully with many problems in astronomy. 从那时以来,应用数学家成功地处理了许多天文学上的问题。

(现在完成时)以上均无被动态。

现在进行时 过去进行时

现在进行时或过去进行时都是“be”的人称、时和数的形式加“doing”。而被动态则是“be”加上“being done”的形式,“being”是不变的。现在进行时和过去进行时的被动态是被动态的重点,容易搞错。例如:

主动:The workers are repairing the main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute.

被动:The main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute is being repaired by the workers.

工人们正在维修东北工学院主楼。

Two reservoirs are being built at the same time. 两座水库同时建造。

The nasty question is being considered by the committee members. 委员会的委员们正在考虑那个棘手的问题.

Equipment and foodstuffs are being flown to the flood stricken areas. 设备和食品正在被空运到灾区。

The building of another fly-over is being planned. 他们在计划修建另一座跨线桥。

We could not get through because the 19th Road was being repaired. 我们过不去,因为一九路正维修呢。

情态动词

情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变

带情态动词和助动词等的被动态如何处理比较复杂。要随新的主语来变化,这些词如“can, could; will, would; shall, should; may, might; must; ought to; need(需要);have to(不得不);be going to; to be to; used to; seem to; happen to等。例如:

主动:We must keep this inmind.

被动:This must be kept inmind.

我们必须把这个记在心里。

主动:We can put the refrigerator in that place.

被动:The refrigerator can be put in that place.

我们可以把电冰箱放在那个地方。

主动:We shall not use the washing machine again.

被动:The washing machine will not be used again.

我们不能再用那台洗衣机了。 原来的谓语“shall use”被动态中随新主语变为“will”。

主动:We shall take more measures to prevent corrosion.

被动:More measures will be taken to prevent corrosion. (“shall”变“will”)

我们将采取更多的措施来防止腐蚀。

I ought to be criticized for it. 我应该为此受到批评。

All this has to be solved with great care. 这一切得认真解决。

The lobby is going to be rebuilt. 门厅将被重建。

The exhibition is to be opened tomorrow. 展览会将在明日开放。

“may”加不定式的完成体或完成进行体表示“可能”,主要用于肯定句,决不能用在疑问句中。而“can”与不定式的完成体或完成进行体连用表示“可能”,只用于否定句和疑问句,不用于肯定句。但如果“can”或“may”的过去式即“could”与“might”与不定式完成体或完成进行体搭配时,可用于各种结构。肯、否、陈、疑,均可。

It can't have been lost in the post, can it?

它不可能是在邮局丢失的吧:(反意疑问句)

否定助后加“not”,疑问一助置主前。

在否定句的被动态中,否定副词“not”一定加在第一助动词之后,不放在别的助动词之后。同样在疑问句的被动态中,第一助动词置于主语之前。

例:Why has(一助)not anything been(二助)done to end the strike?

“not”必须放在第一助动词“has”之后,第一助动词“has”必须放在主语“anything”之前。决不可写成: why has not been anything done toendthe strike?或why has been not anything done to end the strike?

为什么不采取些措施来结束罢工呢?

The exercise will not be done in class.

不可写成:The exercise will be not done in class.

我们将不在课堂上作练习。

In what other way could(一助)information about Mars be(二助)obtained?

用什么别的途径能获得火星的资料呢?

Why had he been imprisoned?

他为什么入狱?

Need she be told about it?

需要告诉他吗?

主语恰是疑问词,直陈语序主在前

主语恰好是一个疑问词或由疑问词来修饰主语时,后面要用陈述语序

例:What(主语)could be dropped from a satellite?

什么东西会被从卫星上扔下?

What measures(主语)are being taken to develop this new science?(主语为疑问词“what”所修饰)

什么措施正在被采取以发展这门新的科技?

What kind of device(主语)is needed to make the control system simple?(主语为疑问词所修饰)

需要什么装置来使控制系统简化?

What has been done to improve the techniques?

什么措施已经被采取以改进这些技术?(“what”是句子的主语

应指出的是有的学生把We study diligently和She could see herself clearly in the mirror.都硬行变成被动了,殊不知不及物动词通常是没有被动态的。关于不及物动词、反身代词动词、同源宾语动词、系词、感官使役动词、短语动词的被动态。

变被动句步骤

1、把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句主语

2、把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。

3、原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。

4、其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

情态动词的被动语态步骤及重点

理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念 含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有“can、may、must、need、should”等,分别表示“能够被……”,“可以被……”,“必须被……”,“需要被……“,应该被……”等。

掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。

(一)一般疑问句直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提前。如: Must this work be done at once?这项工作必须立即完成吗? Should your homework be finished before six?你的家庭作业应在六点前完成吗?

(二)特殊疑问句疑问词加上一般疑问句被动语态构成。如: When must this work be done?这工作必须在什么时候完成? Where can the lost book be found?这本失踪的书能在什么地方被找到?

(三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如: This bridge can be built next year,can't it?这座桥能建成,是吗? This book shouldn't be taken out of the library,should it?这本书不应被带出图书馆,是吗?

(四)否定句在情态动词后面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”时否定式为“needn't”。如:This work needn't be done at once.这项工作没必要立即做。This dustbin shouldn't be put here.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。 三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词,但“must”表“必须”时,其否定回答应用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”时,其肯定回答应用“must”。如: Should my exercises be finished today?我的作业应在今天完成吗? Yes,they should.是的,应在今天完成。 (No,they shouldn't.不,不应在今天完成。) Must his exercise book be handed in at once?他的练习本必须立即上交吗? Yes,it must.是的,必须立即上交。 (No,it needn't.不,不必立即上交。) Need he be operated on at once?他必须立即手术吗? Yes,he must.是的,他必须。 (No,he needn't.不,他不必。)

不用情况

1)不及物动词动词短语无被动语态(即多数的瞬间动词):

appear, die(死亡),disappear(消失), end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand

break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.

After the fire, very little remained of my house.

比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。

(错)The price has been risen.

(对)The price has risen.

(错)The accident was happened last week.

(对)The accident happened last week.

(错)The price has raised.

(对)The price has been raised.

(错)Please seat.

(对)Please be seated.

要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。

2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语

fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to

This key just fits the lock.

3)系动词无被动语态(“keep”除外):

appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

It sounds good.

4)带同源宾语及物动词,反身代词相互代词,不能用于被动语态:

die, death, dream, live, life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

5)当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。

(对)She likes to swim.

(错)To swim is liked by her. [1]

1.一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are +及物动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

I am asked to study hard by my mother.

Knives are used for cutting things.

2.一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

The new shop was built last year.

Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

3.现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been +及物动词的过去分词

This book has been translated into many languages.

Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

4.一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

A new hospital will be built in our city.

Many more trees will be planted next year.

5.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

Young trees must be watered often.

Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

The door may be locked inside.

Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

6.现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being +及物动词的过去分词

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

They are planting trees over there. →

Trees are being planted over there by them.

7.不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词

There are two books to be read. →

There are twenty more trees to be planted.

1.不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......

What will happen in 100 years.

The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

2.有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....

This pen writes well.

This new book sells well.

3.感官动词使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。

例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

4.如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.

5.一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

构成

be+done. [1]

在用于被动结构时,有些动词可以带双宾语。在这种情况下,主动结构中的间接宾语变为主语时,直接宾语仍然保留在谓语后面;直接宾语变为主语时,间接宾语前通常加上介词for/to, etc.

即:S+V+IO+DOIO+ be done +DODO+ be done + prep. +IO

g. 1) My uncle gave me a gifton on my birthday.

→I was given a gifton on my birthday.

→A gift was given to me on my birthday.

We often hear him play the guitar.

→He is often heard toplay the guitar.

It is often heard from him to play the guitar. [1]

Get+过去分词也可以构成被动语态,用这种结构的句子侧重于动作的结果而不是动作本身。如: The man got hurt on his way home. 那个男人在回家的路上受伤了。 How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

周海中教授在论文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get+过去分词的被动语态是一种新兴的被动语态形式;相对来说它的使用还没有Be+过去分词构成的被动语态那么广泛,一般限于口语和非正式书面语;但它却有着用得愈来愈多的趋势,是一种生气蓬勃的语言现象。 [1]

有些动词后跟不带to的不定式宾语补足语,但改为被动结构后要加上“to”。

例如:

We heard him singing in his room just now.

-He was heard to sing in his room just now.

刚才听到他在房间中唱歌。

need doing something也表示被动 [1]

被动语态的构成形式

被动语态的基本时态变化

被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式,被动语态由“be+过去分词”构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

1 am/is/are +done (过去分词)一般现在时

Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

2 has /have been done现在完成时

All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

3 am/is /are being done现在进行时

A new cinema is being built here.

4 was/were done一般过去时

I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

5 had been done过去完成时

By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

6 was/were being done过去进行时

A meeting was being held when I was there.

7 shall/will be done一般将来时

Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

8 should/would be done过去将来时

The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

9 shall/will have been done将来完成时(少用)

The project will have been completed before July.

10 should/would have been done过去将来完成时(少用)

He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.

被动语态的特殊结构形式

1 带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

2 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

His mother gave him a present for his birthday.可改为He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

3 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

4 在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

Someone saw a stranger walk into the building.可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

5 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

非谓语动词的被动语态

v.+ing形式及不定式to do也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态)。

I don't like being laughed at in the public.

如何使用被动语态

学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的各种语法结构,还要知道在哪些情况中使用被动语态。

1 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者(这时可省by短语)。

My bike was stolen last night.

2 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。

I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

3 为了更好地安排句子。

The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people.(一个主语就够了)

It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:

It is said that…据说……

It is reported that…据报道……

It is believed that…大家相信……

It is hoped that…大家希望……

It is well-known that…众所周知……

It is thought that…大家认为……

It is suggested that…据建议……

It is said that the boy has passed the national exam.(=The boy is said to have passed the national exam.)

四、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义

1 英语中有很多动词如break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

This kind of cloth washes well.

注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock.(指门本身有毛病)

The door won't be locked.(指不会有人来锁门,指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

2 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主动形式表示被动意义。

How do the newspapers come out?这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

3 系动词没有被动形式,但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, look, feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。

Your reason sounds reasonable.

非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义

在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义

1 在need,want,require, bear等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。

2 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。

The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

3 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系,不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。

I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.(to do与things是动宾关系,与I是主谓关系。) 试比较:

I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? (此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明you不是post动作的执行者。)

4 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。 例This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).

5 在too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。

This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

6 在there be…句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。 例There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用to lose可看成for us to lose;用to be lost,谁lost time不明确。)

7 在be to do结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动,被动表被动。然而,由于古英语的影响,下列动词rent, blame, let等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。

Who is to blame for starting the fire?

介词in,on等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义

表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其意义相当于该名词相应动词的被动形式,名词前一般不用冠词。

1 “under +名词”结构,表示“某事在进行中”。常见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment(在治疗中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在讨论中), under construction(在施工中)。

The building is under construction( is being constructed).

2 “beyond+名词”结构,“出乎……胜过……、范围、限度”。常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置信),beyond one’s reach(鞭长莫及),beyond one’s control(无法控制),beyond our hope.我们的成功始料不及。

The rumour is beyond belief(=can’t be believed).

3 “above+名词”结构,表示“(品质、行为、能力等)超过……、高于……”。

His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough.

4 “for+名词”结构,表示“适于……、为着……”。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。

That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold).

5 “in+名词”结构,表示“在……过程中或范围内”常见的有:in print(在印刷中),in sight(在视野范围内),等。

The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)

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